How to manage your Diabetes?

Diabetes can never be cured, however it can be managed with maintaining the following –

Taking regular Medications
Regular Exercise
Follow a Healthy Meal Plan
Monitor Blood Sugar Regularily

 

How Is Physical Activity Is Useful?

Physical activity moves sugar from your blood into your cells. The more active you are, the lower your blood sugar level. This is one of the ways you can manage Diabetes.
Remember that physical activity lowers blood sugar. Check your blood sugar level before any activity. You might need to eat a snack before exercising to help prevent low blood sugar if you take diabetes medications that lower your blood sugar.

Benefits Of Exercise

These five benefits have a DIRECT bearing on how successfully you manage your diabetes. Exercise also has other general health benefits – you sleep better, your mental state improves, etc.

Most experts say you should do exercise on at least five days of each week. Each session should be of moderate-intensity and should not last less than thirty minutes. The following activities could be classed as of moderate-intensity –

  • it helps control your blood glucose
  • it helps keep your weight down
  • it helps keep your blood pressure down
  • it helps raise your HDL (High-density lipoprotein), good cholesterol levels
  • it helps lower your LDL (Low-density lipoprotein), bad cholesterol levels

How Much Exercise Should You Do?

  • fast walking
  • swimming
  • cycling 5-9mph (level terrain, perhaps some slight hills)
  • dancing
  • rowing
  • mowing the lawn

What Is Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity?

  • You should experience some increase in your breathing rate
  • There should be an increase in your heart rate
  • You should burn 3.5 to 7 calories per minute
  • You should reach a METs of 3 to 6

How To Track Your Blood Sugar

  • Test Your Blood Sugar regularly
  • Record your Blood sugar readings in the Diary
  • Identify the Blood Sugar Patterns
  • Use your Blood Sugar results to adjust your diet and Insulin
  • Take help of your Doctor and Diabetes Care Team
  • Diabetic Card. Carry a card showing your name, address, telephone No, diagnosis, details of medicines, and last recorded blood sugar level.

How To Manage Diet In Diabetes?

Three things will have a major impact on your blood glucose and blood lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides) levels

  • What you eat
  • How much you eat
  • When you eat

 

Recommended Diet

  • Carbohydrates: 55-65%
    • mainly complex carbohydrates
  • Fats: 20-30%
    • saturated 10%
    • poly-unsaturated 10%
    • mono-unsaturated 10%
    • cholesterol < 300 mg/day
  • Protein: 12-20%
  • Sodium: < 6 g/day
    • hypertensive diabetic< 3 g/day

 

Sample Of Diet Chart

Morning Tea Breakfast(8.30-9AM) Mid Morning 

11 AM

Lunch 

1.30PM

Afternoon Tea 

4.30PM

Dinner 

8 PM

10 .30PM
1-2 cups tea or coffee  ( no added sugar)  2 wheat chapaties/3 pieces of brown bread 

1 small piece of cottage cheese (15 gms)/ /1 egg whites

½ cup cooked mixed vegetables

1 cup of tea/coffee without sugar

1 Apple/Guava  · 1 cup of strained clear soup. 

· 2 wheat chapaties

· ½ cup rice

· Cucumber,tomato,carrot, onion salad

· ½ cup cooked vegetable

· ½ cup cooked dal

· ½ cup dahi ( skimmed milk)

· Grilled fish/chicken-75gm

1 cup of tea/coffee without sugar 

2pieces of marie biscuit

5-6 nuts

1 cup of strained clear soup. 

2 wheat chapaties

½ cup rice

½ cup cooked vegetable

½ cup cooked dal

½ cup dahi

50gm cottage cheese

 

½ cup of skimmed milk

 

What is Prediabetes?

Prediabetes, is also known as “impaired glucose tolerance” or “impaired fasting glucose,” is a health condition with no symptoms. It is almost always present before a person develops the more serious type 2 diabetes. About 79 million people in the U.S. over age 20 have prediabetes with blood sugar levels that are higher than normal, but are not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
More and more, doctors are recognizing the importance of diagnosing prediabetes as treatment of the condition may prevent more serious health problems. For example, early diagnosis and treatment of prediabetes may prevent type 2 diabetes as well as associated complications such as heart and blood vessel disease and eye and kidney disease.

 

Who Should Be Tested For Prediabetes?

You should be tested for pre diabetes if:

  • You’re 45 years of age or older.
  • You’re overweight with a BMI (body mass index) of 25 or over and have any of the following risk factors for diabetes:
  • You are physically inactive.
  • You have a first degree relative with diabetes.
  • You have a history of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds.
  • You have polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • You have high triglycerides or low HDL (good) cholesterol.
  • You have had abnormal blood sugar tests in the past.
  • You have a history of heart disease.
  • You have any signs of a condition called insulin resistance (such as severe obesity or a skin condition called acanthosis nigricans).

 

How To Determine Whether You Have Diabetes, Prediabetes Or Neither?

Doctors can determine whether a patient has a normal metabolism, prediabetes or diabetes in one of three different ways – there are three possible tests:
The A1C test

  • at least 6.5% means diabetes
  • between 5.7% and 5.99% means prediabetes
  • less than 5.7% means normal

 

The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test

  • at least 126 mg/dl means diabetes
  • between 100 mg/dl and 125.99 mg/dl means prediabetes
  • less than 100 mg/dl means normal

An abnormal reading following the FPG means the patient has impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test)

  • at least 200 mg/dl means diabetes
  • between 140 and 199.9 mg/dl means prediabetes
  • less than 140 mg/dl means normal

An abnormal reading following the OGTT means the patient has impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
By identifying the signs of prediabetes before diabetes occurs, you can prevent type 2 diabetes altogether and lower your risk of complications associated with this condition, such as heart disease.Just 30 minutes of moderate physical activity a day coupled with a 7% weight loss produced almost a 60% reduction in diabetes.

 

Alzheimer’s Disease Awareness Initiative Part- I

With Alzheimer’s so much in the news and such a bleak picture associated with this disease , it is but natural to have apprehensions that whether you or your loved ones could be on the brink of the disease or some other form of dementia. This worry is compounded in people who have a history of Alzheimer’s in their families.

Don’t panic. Not all incidences of misplaced keys, inability to recall a name, forgetfulness to pay a bill on time mean that you have Alzheimer’s diseases. Stress can be a huge culprit when it comes to memory problems, as can medications, infections and sleep deprivation. So it’s important to take a realistic knowledge about this disease.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a thief which slowly and stealthily steals and erases the memories. Therefore caring for someone throughout the stages of AD is an arduous task and can leave caregivers feeling powerless and frustrated. Understanding how Alzheimer’s affects the brain can help caregivers know more about what to expect as their loved one progresses through the disease, and how to prepare for that progression. And more important is the fact that armed with this knowledge, they are in a much better position to take care of the patient. Reducing the amount of surprise makes care giving less stressful.

Through a series of articles on AD, we have made a sincere attempt to spread awareness about this disease.

1. Is Memory Loss A Normal Process Of Aging?

Answer: Slowing down of memory is a common occurrence with aging. As people age, it’s normal to have occasional memory problems, such as forgetting the name of a person you’ve recently met. However, these forgotten thoughts return with some delay. This is not memory loss, it is aging.Memory loss is a condition wherein a person entirely forgets important information such as a loved one’s name, route to his home, etc. This sort of a memory loss is not normal and may be a sign of Alzheimer’s disease; it needs immediate attention. If you or someone has memory problems or other problems with thinking and learning that concern you, contact a physician.

2. Is Alzheimer’s Disease An Old Person’s Disease?

Answer: Age is the strongest known risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. But this does not mean that most people develop the disease as they age. Most do not. Alzheimer’s can strike people in their 30s, 40s and even 50s. This is called younger-onset Alzheimer’s. What’s most important to understand is that Alzheimer’s disease is not a normal part of aging.

3. What Exactly Happens In Alzheimer’s Disease?

 

Answer: Alzheimer’s disease is “a progressive, degenerative disorder that attacks the brain’s nerve cells, or neurons, resulting in loss of memory, thinking and language skills, and behavioral changes.”

4. Do Patients Die Of Alzheimer’s Disease?

Answer: Alzheimer’s disease slowly affects and kills the brain cells. This results in not only loss of memory but along with memory, the body forgets how to perform vital functions such as movement, eating, etc. This will eventually lead to the death of the individual.

5. Do Women Have A Greater Risk Of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease?

Answer: Per se there is no direct correlation between being a women and the risk of getting Alzheimer’s disease. However as age is the most important known risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, the longer people live, the more likely they are to develop the disease. Since various studies show that women in general have longer longevity men, they may have a higher lifetime risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

6. Why Is An Early Diagnosis Important?

Answer: An early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease can increase the chance of potential benefits from approved medications. It also allows the person with AD to participate in health care, financial and legal decisions.

7. Is There Any Treatment For Alzheimer’s Disease?

Answer: There is currently no permanent cure for Alzheimer’s disease. For some people in the early to middle stages of the disease, new medications may provide limited cognitive symptom relief. As the symptoms and behaviour of such patients are not uniform and vary on case to case basis, behavioural symptom management is also very management .In addition to medicines, interventions like family education on care giving , counselling, modification of the environment and planned activities to suit the individual needs of the patient .are of paramount importance.

8. Can A Healthy Life Style (Exercise, Diet, And Mental Activities) Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease?

Answer: Many people believe that exercise and mental activity can help prevent Alzheimer’s. However the scientific evidence is unclear on this issue. A few studies have, indeed, found that eating a healthy diet, engaging in aerobic exercise on a regular basis, staying socially active, and keeping your mind engaged with games and puzzles are linked to lower odds of getting Alzheimer’s. Studies also suggest that these same lifestyle changes may reduce the progression of symptoms for people who already have Alzheimer’s disease.

9. What Are The Common Symptoms/Warning Signs Of Alzheimer’s Disease?

Answer: Symptoms/warning signs of AD may include the following:

  • memory loss or unexplained confusion that interferes with daily activities
  • difficulty in performing familiar tasks and chores
  • problems speaking, understanding, reading or writing
  • forgetting words or substituting inappropriate words
  • disorientation to time and place (e.g., getting lost in familiar surroundings)
  • poor or decreased judgment (e.g., wearing a winter coat on a hot summer day)
  • problems with abstract thinking (e.g., difficulty balancing a check book)
  • misplacing things in inappropriate places (e.g., putting the iron in the freezer)
  • changes in mood or behaviour (e.g., rapid mood swings for no apparent reason or cursing)
  • drastic changes in personality (e.g., suspiciousness)
  • lack of interest and involvement in usual activities

· Asking the same question over and over again.

· Repeating the same story, word for word, again and again.

· Forgetting how to cook, or how to make repairs, or how to play cards – activities that were previously done with ease and regularity.

· Neglecting to bathe, or wearing the same clothes over and over again, while insisting that they have taken a bath or that their clothes are still clean.

10. Can You Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease?

Answer: No prophylactic treatment or intervention can prevent Alzheimer’s disease. Researchers are learning, however, that lifestyle choices that keep mind and body fit may help lower the risk of developing the disease. These choices include being physically active; eating healthy foods including fresh fruits, vegetables and fish; keeping your brain challenged; reducing stress, keeping an eye on your blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol levels; avoiding traumatic brain injury; and keeping socially active.

Some people believe that avoiding aluminum in cooking utensils (pots and pans) reduces your risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Although there’s been a lot research into the connection between aluminum and Alzheimer’s disease, there’s no definite evidence to show a link. The disease appears to develop when the different risk factors combine. This includes older age, genetics, lifestyle and environmental factors. These factors overwhelm the natural capacity of the brain to deal with them.

Warning bell! for Alzheimer’s disease.

Knowing helps in early detection!

1. Memory Loss

It is quite normal to have occasional memory lapses. But memory loss that disrupts daily life is a consistent symptom associated with AD. Frequent forgetfulness and unexplainable confusion at workplace/home should bother you.

 

One of the most common signs in the early stages, is forgetting recently learned information. Others common memory lapses are-

· Forgetting important dates or events.

· Asking for the same information over and over.

· Relying on memory aides (e.g., reminder notes or electronic devices) or family members for things they used to handle on their own.

· Forgetting names or appointments.

 

2. Misplacing Things

A person with Alzheimer’s disease may put things in unusual or inappropriate places like putting the iron in a freezer/watch in a sugar pot, mobile in the dustbin. And then totally forgetting how these got there. Sometimes, they may accuse others of stealing. This may occur more frequently over time. The most typical sign is misplacing and forgetting items frequently items like a pair of glasses or the remote control.

 

3. Difficulty Completing Familiar Tasks At Home, At Work Or At Leisure.

People with AD often prepare a meal and then forget to serve it. They may even forget that they have prepared the meal. They often find it hard to complete daily tasks. Sometimes, people may have trouble driving to a familiar location or remembering the rules of a favorite game or how to operate a remote.

 

 

4. Loss Of Initiative

A Person who had previously been an energetic guy, suddenly becomes uninterested and uninvolved in many or all of his daily activities or other pursuits. He/she withdraws from work or social activities and remove themselves from hobbies and sports. They may feel weary of work, family and social obligations.

 

5. Changes In Mood And Personality.

The mood and personalities of people with Alzheimer’s can change dramatically or slowly over a period of time. An easy going and cheerful person can become confused, suspicious, depressed, fearful or anxious. They may be easily upset at home, at work, with friends or in places where they are out of their comfort zone. They may also exhibit extremes of mood swings frequently. They may be very happy one moment and very soon may become very sad and start crying.

6. Decreased Or Poor Judgment.

People with Alzheimer’s may experience changes in judgment or decision making. For example, they may use poor judgment when dealing with money, giving large amounts of money to online shopping. They may pay less attention to grooming or keeping themselves clean. For example, they dress inappropriately like wearing a three piece suit in a hot summer afternoon or going to a mall in his bathrobe.

 

7. Abstract Thinking Problems.

Suddenly or over a period of time a person with AD develop difficulty in planning or solving problems. They may have trouble following a familiar recipe or keeping track of monthly bills. They may have difficulty concentrating and take much longer to do things than they did before. They find difficulty in simple calculations, recognizing simple numbers etc.

 

8. Confusion/Disorientation With Time Or Place.

People with Alzheimer’s can gradually lose track of dates, seasons and the passage of time. They may fail to appreciate what time of the day it is. Sometimes they may forget where they are or how they got there. While going for a walk they may forget the street, their own house or may end up knocking at the wrong house.

 

9. Trouble Understanding Visual Images And Spatial Relationships.

For some people, having vision problems is a sign of Alzheimer’s. They may have difficulty reading, judging distance and determining color or contrast. In terms of perception, they may pass a mirror and think someone else is in the room. They may not recognize their own reflection.

 

10.Problems With Words While Speaking Or Writing.

People with Alzheimer’s may have trouble following or joining a conversation. They may stop in the middle of a conversation and have no idea how to continue or they may repeat themselves. They may struggle with finding the right word or call things by the wrong name (e.g., calling a watch a “hand clock”). They may find similar problems while writing.

What You Can Do To Prevent Diabetic Foot?

When it comes to handling Diabetic Foot, the following points need to be kept in mind –

  • Protect you feet with appropriate footwear/ Insoles, orthosis/ Protective footwear
  • Stop Smoking.
  • Keep your blood sugar within normal limits
  • When it comes to sensing feelings such as
    • Tingling, like a feeling of “ants crawling” or “pins and needles”
    • Reduced ability to sense heat and cold
    • Stabbing  or burning pain
    • Numbness
  • Keep Your Feet Dry And Clean.
    • Wash feet 3-4 times daily, using soap and lukewarm water
    • Dry feet carefully with a soft towel especially between the toes where moisture can lead to a fungal infection
    • Apply a moisturising cream to keep skin over the feet smooth and soft
    • Do not walk barefoot
  • Inspect Your Feet Daily specially the areas between the toes and the undersurface for
    • Breaks in the skin
    • Fissures/blisters/sores/cut/corn/boils
    • Ingrowing toe nail
    • Signs of Infections/Fungal infection(redness, swelling, pus discharge,pain)
    • Do not squeeze/puncture a blister,
    • Do not use corncaps
  • Take Proper care of your toenails
    • Trim and cut toenails with a nail cutter after a bath, when soft and pliable or after soaking it in warm water for 5 minutes.
    • Cut your toenails straight across the top and not too far back on the sides
    • Do not use a sharp instrument to clean under the nail, or in the grooves
    • If your toe nails are too thick to cut or if you have ingrown toe nails, consult your doctor.
  • Respect Your Feet And Get Proper Footwear
    • Always shop for shoes in the evening when the feet are the largest
    • Shoes should not be too tight or too loose
    • Check the size of the shoes wearing the thickest socks
    • Choose cotton socks which absorbs sweat. Socks should be free of wrinkles  and  should not be tight
    • Select shoes which allows your feet to breathe(leathershoes,sports shoes
    • If you have corns, use soft footwear
  • Consult your doctor immediately if you have
    • Fissures/blisters/sores/cut/corn/boils
    • Pain,redness,pus discharge, swelling in your feet

What Is A Diabetic Foot?

Ulcerated diabetic foot is a complex problem. Diminished blood supply (Ischaemia), Nerve changes(neuropathy) and infection are the three pathological components that lead to diabetic foot complications.

Neuropathy and ischaemia are the initiating factors, most often together as neuroischaemia, whereas infection is mostly a consequence.

Diabetes foot ulcers are the most common cause for prolonged hospitalizations

Diabetes is the most important cause of non traumatic foot amputations.

What Are The Different Types Of Diabetes?

There are three types of diabetes:

Type 1 Diabetes

The body does not produce insulin. Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type.
People usually develop type 1 diabetes before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years.
Patients with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life. They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet.

Type 2 Diabetes

The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance).
Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type.
Being overweight, physically inactive and eating the wrong foods all contribute to our risk of developing type 2 diabetes. People with a lot of visceral fat, also known as central obesity, belly fat, or abdominal obesity, are especially at risk.

Drinking just one can of (non-diet) soda per day can raise our risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 22%
Some people may be able to control their type 2 diabetes symptoms by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring their blood glucose levels.

 

Gestational Diabetes

This type of diabetes affects females during pregnancy. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose.
Diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made during pregnancy.The majority of gestational diabetes patients can control their diabetes with exercise and diet.
Apart from these types of diabetes, there is one more ailment, which is pre-diabetes. Learn more about What is Pre-Diabetes.

 

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a condition in which there is too much sugar (glucose) in the blood. Although sugar is needed to provide energy for the body, when in excess, it causes problem.
Excess sugar level is due to

  • either because insulin production is inadequate
  • or because the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both

Is Diabetes Common?

  1. 150 million people affected worldwide (in 2000)
  2. Expected 300 million people by 2025 (mostly in India and China)
  3. Can occur at any age, common in middle age (30 – 40 yrs)

What Is Optimum Blood Sugar Level?

 

BLOOD SUGAR GOOD BORDERLINE POOR
Fasting mg/dl 80-110 111-140 > 140
Fasting mg/dl 80-144 145-180 > 180

 

Fasting Blood Sugar is measured when the patient has not eaten anything for the past 8 hours. This test is typically carried out first thing in the morning before the patient has had anything to eat. Post Prandial test is usually conducted after the patient has had something to eat.

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone produced by pancreas, an organ situated behind the stomach. It makes our body’s cells absorb glucose from the blood. The glucose is stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen and stops the body from using fat as a source of energy.
Insulin is the key which opens the door of the cells and allow sugar (glucose) to enter where it is utilized. When there is very little insulin in the blood, or none at all, glucose is not taken up by most body cells , sugar remains in the blood in high amounts.

Is Diabetes Serious?

Yes It Is! It works silently and is not a Mild Disease!
Do you know Untreated it will affect many vital organs of the body with serious consequences.
`It can cause multiple problems such as –

  • Gangrene/Infection
  • Heart Attack
  • Blindness
  • Stroke Paralysis

 

Are You Having These Symptoms?

Be Aware! It can be Diabetes? Report to Doctor.

  • Increased thirst, dry mouth
  • Increased Hunger
  • Increased frequency of urination especially in night.
  • Recent change in weight
  • Difficulty in vision(Blurred vision, Double vision, Cloudy vision, Floating spots in the visual field)
  • Non-healing wounds

Tips on Diet for a Diabetic

You must realize that your body needs energy to perform all vital functions and most of the energy is derived from carbohydrate and the most important energy producing end product in the body is glucose.

The hormone Insulin helps your cells to get the right amount of Glucose and also maintains the right level of glucose in the blood.

In diabetes either the insulin is not  produced in required quantity or even it is produced it does not  work right. (resistance) Even though your Insulin is not doing its job a healthy diet along with medication and weight management keeps your blood glucose under control.

Cheer up! Being diagnosed with diabetes does not mean that you stop enjoying a wide variety of foods as part of a healthy diet. At first, specially if you are a foodie you get depressed but the general principle is simple: Following a “diabetes diet” means choosing food that will work along with your activities and any medications to keep your blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible.  However do not get stamped that “Diabetic Diet” is for you only. The foods that are healthy for people with diabetes are also good choices for the rest of your family. Usually, there is no need to prepare special diabetic meals. The difference between a “diabetes diet”  and your family’s “normal” diet is this: If you have diabetes, you need to monitor what you eat a little more closely specially the  calories you consume and the amounts and types of carbohydrates, fats, and protein you eat.

What you eat depend on

  • excerise
  • Weight
  • Physical activity
  • Blood Sugar levels
  • Other disease conditions
  • Type of Food you eat

Goal

1. Count calories – Per day calorie intake should be between 1,500-1,800 calories with a proportion of 60:20:20 between carbohydrates, fats and proteins, respectively.
2. Keep a food Diary:- 1. What you are eating. 2. How much? 3. When ?

3. Carbohydrates are not evil:- For diabetics carbohydrates — or “carbs” as most of us refer to them — are good for diabetes. They form the foundation of a healthy diabetes diet — or of any healthy diet. Carbohydrates have the greatest effect on blood sugar levels, which is why you are asked to monitor how many carbohydrates you eat when following a diabetes diet. Moreover, carbohydrate foods contain many essential nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, and fiber. So one diabetes diet tip is to choose those with the most nutrients, such as whole-grain breads and baked goods, and high-fiber fruits and vegetables.

4. Avoid excessive protein intake: Because carbohydrates affect blood sugar levels so quickly, you may be tempted to eat less of them and substitute more protein. The main problem with too much of protein is that many foods rich in protein, such as meat, may also be filled with saturated fat. Eating too much of these fats increases your risk of heart disease. Eating too much of protein can increase the risk of insulin resistance.

5. Choose foods with low glycemic index(GI):- The Glycemic Index, or GI, is a ranking of carbohydrates in foods according to how they affect blood glucose levels.Foods with a low GI raise Blood Glucose Level(BGL) s more slowly and steadily than foods with a high GI. People with diabetes can benefit from eating low GI foods throughout the day, ideally one at each meal.

Low Glycemic Index foods include Cauliflower, Broccoli, Peanuts, Sea Food, Seeds, Nuts,Cucumber, Beans, Celery, Lettuce, Spinach, Tomatoes, Soybeans, Peas, Barley, Yoghurt, Apples, Whole Heavy Grain Breads ,Brown Rice, Oats And Muesli, Pasta, Corn, Sweet Potato, Low Fat Milk, Yoghurt ,Kiwi Lean Meat Etc. beans

Avoid fruits that spike blood sugar levels: these foods include fruit juices, canned fruits, and dried fruits.
6. Eat 20 – 25 grams of raw onion daily. Onions contain properties that actually fight against diabetes. It also aids digestion besides serving as a diuretic.
7. Eat at least 3 servings of fresh vegetables daily. Vegetables that can be consumed in larger quantities by diabetics are cabbage, mint, spinach, bitter gourd, lady’s finger, cauliflower, cucumber, carrots, radish, onion stalk and pumpkin.
8. Fenugreek/Methi is good for you – One teaspoon of methi seeds soaked overnight in 100 ml of water is very effective in controlling diabetes.
9. Drink tomato juice with pepper and a pinch of salt every morning on an empty stomach.
10. Drink Skimmed Milk – Milk is the right combination of carbohydrates and proteins and helps control blood sugar levels. Two servings of milk in a daily diet is a good option.
11. Whole grains, oats, channa atta, millets and other high fibre foods should be included in the meals.
12. Restrict Salt Intake – Diabetes can put you at increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular complications. Try to reduce the intake of salt in your food.

  • Do not add extra salt.
  • Do not put salt shaker on the table.
  • Use salt free seasonings like onion, garlic
  • Avoid pickles,chips,processed foods

13. Drink plenty of water. Water is important for everybody, but especially for diabetics because decrease of the hydration-level can cause serious health problems.

14. Pulses are important in the diet as their effect on blood glucose is less than that of most other carbohydrate.

15. Choose foods lower in total fat and in particular low in saturated fats

Saturated fat is found mainly in animal foods, like red meat, cheese, butter and full cream dairy products as well as in takeaway and many pre-packaged foods (e.g. biscuits and chips).
To reduce your saturated fat intake try to choose low fat dairy foods, lean meats, skinless chicken, and margarine instead of butter, and limit fried take away foods. Take baked, grilled food.

16. Include small amounts of the healthier fats: Some fat in the diet is important for good health. Healthier fats include poly and monounsaturated margarines and oils such as canola or olive, fish, avocado, nuts and seeds.

17. You Donot Have to Give Up Desserts if You Have Diabetes.
Use artificial sweeteners in desserts. Artificial sweeteners are much sweeter than the equivalent amount of sugar, so it takes less of them to get the same sweetness found in sugar. This can result in eating fewer calories than when you do use sugar. The American Diabetes Association approves the use of several artificial sweeteners in diabetes diets like:Aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal).
Acesulfame potassium (Sunett),Sucralose.

18. Eat three meals a day and snacks spaced in long spans. Do not skip meals. Eat in small quantity keeping the total calorie in mind. Do not binge.

19. Alcohol – Talk to your doctor if you drink alcohol. Specially if you are on insulin, and antidiabetic drug your blood sugar may dip suddenly after you drink alcohol.
If you have to drink
Drink white wine(max-5 oz,)/light beer(-max-12 oz)
Drink with meals or after meals
Drink slowly
Consult your doctor and Dietitian for further guidance.

Hypertension

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is often called a “silent disease” because you usually don’t know that you have it. There may be no symptoms or signs. Nonetheless, it damages the body and eventually may cause problems like heart disease.
Therefore, it’s important to regularly monitor your blood pressure, especially if it has ever been high or above the “normal” range, or if you have a family history of hypertension. Because hypertension can cause heart disease, you may also need to be tested for heart disease.

What Is High Blood Pressure?

Blood pressure refers to the force of blood pushing against artery walls as it courses through the body. Like air in a tire or water in a hose, blood fills arteries to a certain capacity. Just as too much air pressure can damage a tire or too much water pushing through a garden hose can damage the hose, high blood pressure can threaten healthy arteries and lead to life-threatening conditions such as heart disease and stroke.
Hypertension is the leading cause of stroke and a major cause of heart attack. In the U.S. alone, more than 30% of American adults have high blood pressure.
If you have high blood pressure, you’ll probably find out about it during a routine checkup. Or, you may have noticed a problem while taking your own blood pressure. Be sure to see your doctor for a definite diagnosis, and take the opportunity to learn what you can do to bring your blood pressure under control.

How Is Blood Pressure Measured?

Blood pressure is measured with a simple, painless test using a blood pressure cuff — doctors call it a sphygmomanometer. It consists of a small pressure gauge that is attached to a cuff.
The inflatable cuff is wrapped around your upper arm. Some blood pressure cuffs wrap around the forearm or wrist.
When taking your blood pressure, your doctor will use a stethoscope to listen to the blood moving through an artery.
The cuff is inflated to a pressure that’s known to be higher than your systolic blood pressure. As the cuff deflates, the first sound heard through the stethoscope is the systolic blood pressure. It sounds like a whooshing noise. When this noise goes away, that indicates the diastolic blood pressure.
The systolic blood pressure number is always said first, and then the diastolic blood pressure number is given. For example, your blood pressure may be read as “120 over 80″ or written 120/80.
Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).

How Often Should I Get My Blood Pressure Checked?

  • If your blood pressure is normal (less than 120/80), get it checked at least every 2 years or more frequently as your doctor suggests
  • If your blood pressure is borderline high — systolic blood pressure between 120 and 139 or diastolic blood pressure of 80 to 89 — check it at least every year or more often as your doctor suggests
  • If your blood pressure is 140/90 or higher, talk with your doctor as this is high blood pressure and requires a doctor’s attention

 

What Is “Normal” Blood Pressure?

Normal blood pressure rises steadily from about 90/60 at birth to about 120/80 in a healthy adult. If someone were to take your blood pressure immediately after you’d delivered a speech or jogged five miles, the reading would undoubtedly seem high. This is not necessarily cause for alarm: It’s natural for blood pressure to rise and fall with changes in activity or emotional state.
People with blood pressure readings of 140/90 or higher, taken on at least two occasions, are said to have high blood pressure. If the pressure remains high, your doctor will probably begin treatment. People with blood pressure readings of 180/120 or higher need treatment immediately. People at higher cardiovascular risk (such as diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or known heart and vascular disease) are treated if their blood pressure rises above 130/80, because they already have a high risk of heart disease
A blood pressure reading has a top number (systolic) and bottom number (diastolic).

What Does The Systolic Blood Pressure Number Mean?

When your heart beats, it contracts and pushes blood through the arteries to the rest of your body. This force creates pressure on the arteries. This is called systolic blood pressure.
A normal systolic blood pressure is below 120.
A systolic blood pressure of 120 to 139 means you have prehypertension, or borderline high blood pressure. Even people with prehypertension are at a higher risk of developing heart disease.

What Does The Diastolic Blood Pressure Number Mean?

The diastolic blood pressure number or the bottom number indicates the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between beats.
A normal diastolic blood pressure number is less than 80.
A diastolic blood pressure between 80 and 89 indicates prehypertension.
A diastolic blood pressure number of 90 or higher is considered to be hypertension or high blood pressure.

To summarise

  • Normal: Less than 120 over 80 (120/80)
  • Prehypertension: 120-139 over 80-89
  • Stage 1 high blood pressure: 140-159 over 90-99
  • Stage 2 high blood pressure: 160 and above over 100 and above

People whose blood pressure is above the normal range should consult their doctor about steps to take to lower it.