This is followed by another cycle of hydration for 6h, 42h of dehydration, 6h of hydration and 66h of dehydration
This is followed by another cycle of hydration for 6h, 42h of dehydration, 6h of hydration and 66h of dehydration. At the time point 96, 168, 216 and 288h, CFU, viability, biomass, biofilm structure, protein and polysaccharide content were analysed.
Quantification of biofilms
a. Cell count (CFU): Biofilms are washed three times with PBS. I ml of 1M NaCl is added to the well containing the biofilm and allowed to soak for 30min after which biofilms are scrapped carefully with the tip of I ml pipette to remove all biofilms. Using same pipette, the scrapings are removed into an Eppendorf tube. The tube is then sonicated for 5min in an ultrasonic bath for 5min, vigorously shaken vortexed for 2 min, followed by a sequential tenfold dilution in PBS and plating out on NA.
The remaining content in the Eppendorf tube is centrifuged for 10min at 6000rpm/min. the supernatant is removed and filtered through a syringe filter. The filtrate is used for protein and polysaccharide quantification.
b. Biomass. 1 ml of 0.1% crystal violet is added into washed biofilms in well and incubated at room temperature for 30min. the dye is discarded while the well washed carefully with distilled water and drained. 750 µl of absolute ethanol is added and incubated for 15 min. 100µl of the ethanol is removed into clean 96 well plates after carefully mixing by agitation and absorbance read at 570nm.
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a. Bradford assay: The protein component of the recovered ECM was estimated by adding 0.5 ml to 0.5 ml of Bradford reagent in Eppendorf tubes and allowed to react for 10 minutes. The absorbance of 100 µL of this reaction mixture was measure at 595 nm in flat bottom 96-well plate using a Qiagen 96-well plate reader. The concentration of the protein component in the recovered ECM was estimated using a BSA standard graph.
b. Phenol-sulphuric assay: phenol sulphuric assay according to (Masuko et al. 2005) was used to quantify the polysaccharide component of biofilm ECM. 150 µL of concentrated sulfuric acid was added to 50 µL of recovered ECM sample in a 96-well microplate. 30 µL of 5% phenol was added and the mixtures were mixed and incubated for 5 min at 900C in a static water bath. The plates were thereafter allowed to cool to room temperature, wiped dry and the absorbance estimated at A492 nm. The polysaccharide component was estimated using a glucose standard graph.
Measuring of proliferation of S. aureus using alamarBlue® by spectrophotometry
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EXPLAIN KEY AIMS OF EDUCATION OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN OWN SPECIALIST AREA
SPECIALIST AREA; PREPARATION FOR EMPLOYMENT: Before anyone can start working in the health, fitness and well-being industry they are required to undertake the minimum level of their practice before they can work in the industry for an company. In the industry, individuals are required to have a minimum level 2 in fitness instructing given from the enroll of Exercise Professionals (REPS) before they can be employed as a qualified practitioner. In some circumstances, equivalent qualifications at level 2 can be considered if given from another awarding organisation/company like BTEC, NVQ or if you have a degree in the field, nonetheless, for the purpose of recognition the award should come from the enroll of Exercise Professionals. In order to work as A personal trainer within the gyms you are required by law to possess a minimum qualification of a level 3 in personal training once more given by the Register of Exercise Professionals. This qualification opens up more doors for a trainer as it allows you to work as a self-employed practitioner deliver one to one and groups sessions to clients from within a gym, studio, park or clients home. Petty. G (2009).
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SPECIALIST AREA; SPECIFIC ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: My specialist area is Personal Training working at the one of the highest levels within the fitness industry dealing with a variety of different people who are seeking expertise knowledge on various ways to improve their health and well-being. The actual role of the personal trainer is to possess knowledge, skills and different abilities required to design and deliver safe and effective fitness programs with regards to their learners.Hough (2016) a lecturer in health and exercise science of St. Marys University at Twickenham U.K discusses additional requirements that are needed in my area of specialism below:
Having and maintaining a working knowledge of human anatomy and the concepts of functional exercise, basic nutrition and fundamental maxims of exercise science
An power to design and execute individual and small group exercise fitness programs, tailored to the needs and attainable goals of the individual, apparently healthy client, in a safe and effective way
An understanding for the need and importance of screening and client assessment; proficiency in conducting these evaluations initially and progressively
A need to help clients reach their health and fitness goals through appropriate cardiovascular, flexibility and resistance exercise
An power to motivate others in an encouraging and uplifting way towards improving their overall fitness and health
A dedication to maintaining personal integrity, client confidentiality and professional standards for best practice
A dedication to self-improvement, self-awareness, continuous learning, personal growth and development with regard to personal health, fitness and mental capacity, Petty.G (2009)
SPECIALIST SUBJECT; AWARDING ORGANISATION REQUIREMENTS:
Just before can start any task within the fitness industry engaging with learners, you are required to have the right qualifications for the department that you’re working in for legislation purposes. For example, if you’d like to work as a fitness instructor you must have a minimum of a level 2 qualification given by a recognised awarding body so that the award is registered on to the Register of Exercise Professionals. The exact same goes for working as a personal trainer, you will need to have a level 3 qualification given by a recognised awarding body. When you have a higher qualification such as a degree in fitness or sports, you’ll still be required to undertake the level 3 award, your higher qualification might warrant you from taking the level 2 qualification but that will require approval from the gymnasium and also from the enroll of Exercise Professionals beforehand, Petty (2009).
UP-TO-DATE INFORMATION FROM EMPLOYERS OR WORKPLACE:If you are working in a organisation, franchise or gym interacting with client members delivering physical training and there are new sources of information that needs to be addressed to staff then normallyit should come from the general manager of the premises. He/she willdeliver the up to date information directly to all members of staff alternatively, if there is information that is directly linked to the fitness team then the manager will delegate it to the manager of the fitness department to give to the fitness team.
If you are working as a freelance trainer/sole-trader who is self-employed then it is the trainer’s responsibility to remain up-to-date with all current legislations that are coming out from the awarding bodies and health and well-being industry, Petty (2009).
TASK 1.2 ANALYSE PHILOSOPHICAL ISSUES RELATING TO EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN OWN SPECIALIST AREA
PHILOSOPHICAL ISSUES; QUALIFICATION FRAMEWORK:The awarding body Skills Active speaks the two main qualifications that considered in the fitness industry, there are two main qualifications which can be looked at before any work can commence:
Level 2: This level is ideal for those who are curiosity about delivering health and fitness at the basic level, all candidates will be required to have a basic knowledge of health and fitness before embarking onto the course. The course will look at five mandatory units that well have to be completed and passed in order to receive the level 2 award. There are five main topics that will completion:Skills Active 2016
Also, the instructor will need to highlight what specialist pathway they would like to take also, choosing from a single of the followings:
Level 3: This qualification level will explore in depth knowledge about the anatomy and how it works, the level 2 qualification is a pre-requisite before embarking on this qualification. There four main topics explored with this course as outlined below:
A difficulty some one can face to be a trainer is not having the knowledge about the health and fitness industry as a whole and this will be an issue for them with undertaking the about qualifications in the framework as both a theoretical and practical based learning. Skills Active 2016
SPECIALIST WORK ETHICS: To be a specialist in anything you do requires tremendous effort towards reaching that goal and may require additional knowledge from other sources to help widen current knowledge on subject area. Within the fitness industry it is no different at all, the more knowledge you have the better your work effect will become. I have highlight some examples below from my field.
Fitness Instructor: This is the minimum role you can undertake within the fitness industry to work, it allows you to be flexible, you will be required to perform all duties solely within the fitness centres doing inductions, possible taking classes, general housekeeping duties like(cleaning) assist customers when needed with equipment and possibly taking a class (if qualified to do so). Other than this your role is generally the exact same at level 2.
Personal Trainer: After you have completed your fitness instructor course at level 2 it is possible to immediately take the level 3 in personal training. Once you become qualified you can then dictate when you and how you utilize your web visitors as you are legally able to register as a self-employed sole-trader, delivering someone to one and group sessions to customers. These qualificationsallow you to also create your prices for trading to groups or someone to one when delivering a session, for example you might charge £30 per hour or maybe more for your service to simply help customers reach their goals. This is a service that you cannot do with only a level 2 qualification as a fitness instructor. So, there is purpose to working harder within the fitness industry.Petty (2009).
SPECIALISED EDUCATION; BEHAVIORISM:As human beings our behaviours tend to change as we learn so when we grow, with everything we learn we put into practice and the more practice we learn the experience we get along the way. For example, a baby will cry for attention when they are young, their behaviour will be expressed through tantrum, but as they grow older they will express new methods for getting attention. It could be verbally or through their actions (behaviour) depending on the situation and what they need attention for at that moment.
When I am designing a fitness curriculum for a learner or a group of learners, I take into consideration exactly what will be taught to the learners and also what they will be gaining from the curriculum, the idea behind the structure is to target the goals that the learner wishes to work on. If over a course of time the learner feels that what they are learner is not support them in the long run leading up to their goals then they will become disengaged from the program as they will dsicover it really is off no benefit to them. During this time their behaviour towards the program may become negative and this can express through their body language differently for example arriving late for class and leaving earlier or just not engaging with the lesson.Pavlov,I (1897).
STUDENT DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES: Some students could have development issues that causes them to have severe difficulties with progression and learning for example disabilities, learning disabilities, language and liberty. As a result, it will likely be more difficult to progress with the physical and theoretical parts of their learning in physical education and that can slow them down as they may become demotivated as a result feeling that their known reasons for no progression are beyond their control.Pavlov,I (1897).
TASK 2.1 DESCRIBE THE AIMS AND STRUCTURE OF KEY QUALIFICATIONS IN OWN SPECIALIST AREA
AIMS; AWARDING BODY SPECIFICATIONS:The aims of the awarding bodies (given below) for certifying all personal trainers and fitness instructors is that all those working within the fitness and health industry are qualified to a level that enables them to deliver safe and training that is effective advice to client members. The main element qualifications to work within a gym legally are the level 2 fitness instructor award and level 3 personal trainer certification. Skills Active 2016
EMPLOYABILITY: Level 2 Fitness Instructor: There are no minimum entry requirements to take this award but one of the specification are that you’re familiar with use of the fitness industry and gymnasiums. This award will allow to work within the industry and within any franchise gym, nonetheless as a level 2 holder the instructor will only be allowed to work in certain areas doing certain tasks. For example, group inductions, taking classes qualified to teach and general house keeping duties. This level will not allow you to work in depth with client members and give someone to one support or guidance but is a minimum for requirement of leisure centre working.
Level 3 Personal Trainer: The minimum specification to take this award is the previous level 2 in fitness instructing or higher qualification such as a degree. This qualification will allow you work anywhere with clients including their homes, gyms and local parks it will also allow you to work in any gym within Europe also. The aims of the qualification are to enhance your current knowledge on the anatomy and also other areas to make you a better trainer.
Level 4 Advanced Personal Trainer: The minimum you must have before doing this course is a level 3 or degree in sports, science and exercise. This qualification will allow you to work with specialise clients referred for exercise such as pre and post-natal/low back/GP referrals, making you a more better trainer to your clients.(Skills Active 2016)
STRUCTURES; UNITS OF LEARNING: The level 2 teaches learners about the physical anatomy and how to use the equipment and resources within the gyms and work the various areas like free weights, cardio section and multi gym area. This unit may also focus on the health and safety aspects of working within a gym and general protocol procedures that should be adhered to meet customer and gym expectations also to avoid any legal actions. The level 3 qualification will make learners a more specialised trainer by teaching students how to still work towards achieving client goals without the usage of gym equipment and the facilities, the learner will learn how to work without these and still aim towards achieving client goals and exceeding their expectations by working in various locations other than a gym facility. In addition, the level 4 award will allow the trainer to work alongside specialised clients who have been referred for exercise giving them expertise advice and assistants to meet up their overall goals.(Skills Active 2016)
WORK EXPERIENCE OR PLACEMENT: Arrangements may be made to for students who are studying in the fitness industry to gain some work experience but this will have to be discussed separately with the management of the gyms. If you are not qualified then you maybe allowed to work as a volunteer but your duties will be extremely minimised for health and safety and policy as you are not qualified to give any advice in the area of health and fitness. Nonetheless, if you are doing an apprenticeship you maybe allowed to shadow a staff member to gain experience and see how they utilize other members.
DESCRIBE THE AIMS AND STRUCTURE OF LEARNING PROGRAMMES IN OWN SPECIALIST AREA.
AIMS; ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES TO SUIT BOTH THE SUBJECT SPECIALISM AND THE NEEDS OF LEARNER: Within the fitness industry all aims of exams and assessments are for the instructor or trainer to assess physical activities that the learners can demonstrate in a safe and effective manner without causing any injuries our danger to themselves or others. In addition, the learners also needs to be able to highlight what area of muscles each activities target, for example assessment activities such as bench press, chest fly’s and push-ups all are activities that focus on the pectoralis major muscle group and the learners must know how to perform these activities correctly.Petty, G (2008)
ESTABLISHING LEARNERS NEEDS: When a learner has their induction with the trainer on their induction day, after completing all the necessary paperwork, they will be asked about their interests in physical fitness and what are their main goals and what they hope to achieve. The learner may respond by saying “I need to drop some weight for my upcoming wedding” therefore the trainer has established that the learner needs to lose a specific number of weight in order to appear and feel great on their big day. Using this information the trainer can then assess the learner’s currents level in terms of where their weight is at the moment and also give them advice on how much is appropriate to lose before the big day arrives so that the necessary SMART goals is produced for the learner.Petty, G (2008)
STRUCTURE; APPROPRIATE TIMEFRAME: As all learners could have different needs and goals they will each require separate timescales to reach and achieve their long-term goals, all timescales will be arranged with a qualified trainer that will assess the needs of the learner and will discuss the appropriate timescale to complete that goal with each individual learner. Nonetheless, all timeframes are scheduled between eight and twelve weeks but may necessitate an extension if the learner is unable to commit to the frequency of their attendance schedule or at the end of the timeframe their goal has still not been achieved.Hough, P & Penn, S (2016)
INTENSIVE: When I am coaching an amateur or professional boxer due to the nature of their training regime they will be required to do more physical activities each day and coming weeks leading up to a scheduled boxing match to ensure they are in the best possible physical condition ready with regards to their fight. According to their match they maybe scheduled to start training as early as 4-5am doing road work (running 3-8miles in distance), with a small amount of time allocated to rest a short while later the learner will then be required to return later that afternoon to accomplish a schedule training session making use of their coach this might last between 1 ½ – 3 hours long. Oliver, I (2006)
EXPLAIN HOW OWN APPROACH TO PLANNING AND PREPARATION FOR THE DELIVERY OF A LEARNING PROGRAMME IN OWN SPECIALIST AREA ENABLES ITS AIMS TO BE MET
PLANNING; INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS ESTABLISHING NEEDS:
The first initial assessment method that I use with my learners is called a Physical Active Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q), this is a fitness medical reading form that individuals use to assess the learner physical state and to ensure that they are in good enough health before doing any health and fitness training. The document outlines a variety of questions learners previous and current health status so that appropriate activities is designed for their fitness programme to reach their goals. The second assessment is observation, watching the learners perform physical activities to observe their strengths and weaknesses not just on that activity but overall as sometimes multiple muscle group maybe used to do an exercise.Hough, P & Penn, S (2016)
SETTING SPECIFIC ACHIEVEMENT GOALS AND TIMESCALES FOR ACHIEVEMENT: All learners will be given individual targets which they need to achieve by truly the only to achieve these targets is with practicing constantly so that progress is made gradually without having any physical strain on the anatomy. For example, a learner may only be able to perform eight push-up repetitions within a set, the goal for the next session will be to increase that number to ten making it harder for the learner to achieve as they are now working beyond their comfort
zones. The overall goal would be to twelve to fifteen push ups per set but each session an additional one extra would be added to the mark. Hough, P & Penn, S (2016)
PREPARING; SPECIALIST RESOURCES: Some learners will require additional resources in order with regards to their goals to be met, sometimes it is required to refer a learner to a specialist with regards to their knowledge and expertise on how to reach the learners goals. For example, a learner may necessitate additional support with their diet so they will be referred to either a nutritionist or dietitian for that support.